[Space Technology] How to Send an Indian Into Space Mission | Gaganyaan 2022

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Recently there is a buzz about India’s Chandrayaan-2. India is going to that part of the moon where no country has ever been. Though in this post we will shift our focus from Chandrayaan to Gaganyaan. Gaganyaan is set to launch in 2021. Here you will learn about the Gaganyaan 2022 and how ISRO will send an Indian into space?

Talking about Gaganyaan it has three basic components

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  • Taking Astronauts into space
  • Ensuring that astronaut lives in a space
  • Finally, Astronaut returns home safely

Before that, it is necessary that Astronaut get adequate training 

Gagannaut Training

Indian Air Force (IAF) and ISRO will select the crew and train them. Notably, a minimum of 2 years of training is necessary. The Institute of Aerospace Medicine of the Indian Air Force at Bengaluru will train gagannauts.

Recently, there was news that Russians will give training to Gagannauts.  

Launch Vehicle

ISRO has two types of launchers PSLV and GSLV. PSLV has always been ISRO’s USP. PSLV is a workhorse of ISRO. It was used in MOM i.e. Mission on Mars and to launch 104 satellites in one go (world record*).

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Though PSLV has limitations. It is not a heavy lifter. So for that, we require GSLV. And with GSLV comes challenging technology- Cryogenics. Though with the successful launch of Chandrayaan, we can say that ISRO is on the right path.

GSLV Mk-III will launch Gaganyaan. Because GSLV can carry heavy payloads. Technically, the launch vehicle will place Gaganyaan in low earth orbit (LEO)of 300-400 km. 

Life Support

  • It is the most critical elements
  • called Environment Control and Life Support Systems
  • This will make space flight safe and crew capsule liveable
  • ISRO is taking care of aspects like Food and hygiene
  • Also, space-suit is being developed by ISRO

Reentry and Recovery Technology

Gaganyan is not a one-way ticket like Chandrayaan and Mangalyaan. It involves complex technology. Launching a satellite is fairly easy. Satellites are meant to remain in space.

Gaganyaan will come back to the earth like any other manned spacecraft. Mastering this step is a bit complicated. 

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When the spacecraft reenters into Earth’s orbit, it needs to withstand several thousand degrees. 

When a meteorite enters into earth’s atmosphere it burns up itself similarly when spacecraft enters into earth atmosphere friction creates heat. 

The spacecraft needs to reenter the atmosphere at a precise angle as well as speed


CARE is the Crew Module Atmospheric Reentry Experiment. 

The first successful experimental flight of GSLV Mk-III on December 18, 2014, also involved the successful testing of an experimental crew module (went 126 km in height) named the Crew module Atmospheric Reentry Experiment (CARE).

The spacecraft reentered the atmosphere at about 80 km altitude and landed in the Andaman Sea. Later, the coast guard recovered the module.

Crew Escape System

This is an emergency mechanism in case things go wrong. The mechanism ensures the crew module gets an advance warning and pulls it away to a safe distance.

After which Astronaut can land with the help of a parachute.

Below I will update timeline of Gaganyaan time to time, so keep the notification on.

Mission Gaganyaan 2022 Timeline 

  1. December 2014: the Experimental flight of GSLV Mk-III
  2. June 2017: the First developmental flight of GSLV Mk-III
  3. In July 2018: the first successful flight of the crew escape system.
  4. Jan 30, 2019: Inauguration of Human Space Flight Centre 
  5. July 5, 2019: FM presented outlay for Space Technology as well as Gaganyan

Also read: Why India Needs Nuclear Submarines?


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